Punishment stocks – City of York.

Nikon F4 / Nikkor 50mm f1.8 D with Nikon diffusion filter on T-Max 400 (original*)
from my freezer.

The stocks were used as a punishment for crimes of public disorder (drunkenness for example) throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Their use declined in the 18th century, but probably last used in the UK at the market town of Newcastle Emlyn west Wales in 1872.
The criminal being locked in by legs & hands or hands & head: they were then subjected to ridicule by the local population who threw rotting fruit and in some cases stones at them.

* 1987: so this film is over 30 years old.

Window with bars – N07.

Window with bars – N07.

From my Oman files: I found one with mostly straight walls! it’s a problem with these historic forts, there is not always much room, forcing me to use a wider angle lens than I would normally like. It tends to exaggerate the builders imperfections along with those of the lens.

Newspeak and The Rights of Man.

…Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thought-crime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Every concept that can ever be needed will be expressed by exactly one word, with its meaning rigidly defined and all its subsidiary meanings rubbed out and forgotten. . . . The process will still be continuing long after you and I are dead. Every year fewer and fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller. Even now, of course, there’s no reason or excuse for commiting thought-crime. It’s merely a question of self-discipline, reality-control. But in the end there won’t be any need even for that…. . . .George Orwell.

Mind thine own concerns. If he believes not as thou believest, it is a proof that thou believest not as he believes, and there is no earthly power can determine between you.  Thomas Paine, 
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