English Common Law –
The right to a trial by jury, habeas corpus, and the right against self-incrimination. By contrast, France and many other nations have a system based on Roman Law, commonly known as Napoleonic.
We have it because of the following three sections (38,39 & 40) of Magna Carta, maintained through revisions made in 1225 & 1297:
Nullus ballivus ponat decetero aliquem ad legem simplici loquela sua, sine testibus fidelibus ad hoc inductis.
Nullus liber homo capiatur, vel imprisonetur, aut disseisiatur, aut utlagetur, aut exuletur, aut aliquo modo destruatur, nec super eum ibimus, nec super eum mittemus, nisi per legale judicium parium suorum vel per legem terre.
Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus, aut differemus rectum aut justiciam.
Runnymede: 15 June 1215.
It has been described as:
“the greatest constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot”
The implications of this are that in common law countries – people tend to act until the law says they cannot; while in civil law countries – people tend to wait for the state to tell them whether they can act and, if so, how.
The original charter does not have numbered sections, it was a single, long unbroken text. Numbered sections; 63 in all, were introduced by Sir William Blackstone in 1759.
See link for text in both Latin & English: Documents/Magna_Carta.html